We are living in a world full of electronics today, both big and small, but all of them highly relying on PCB assemblies for functioning. These PCB assemblies are tiny components, but they comprise a lot of elements connected together to work simultaneously. While every electronic gadget requires a different kind of PCB assembly, but the basic components remain the same. Just in case you are inquisitive to know what all comprise a PCB, which is why you might be on this page, here is a list of the basic components mounted on a general PCB assembly from India.
Resistors, as the name itself suggests, function to resist the flow of current by dissipating electric power as heat. The most basic type of resistor used is the axial style resistor with leads on both long ends, and the body inscribed with coloured rings that indicates the resistor’s resistance value. Other than this, there could be many other types of resistors that may be used in a PCB.
Capacitors are used to temporarily hold electric charge, and release it whenever more power is required elsewhere in the circuit. This is done by collecting opposite charges on two conductive layers, separated by an insulating or dielectric material. These components are categorized as per the conductor or dielectric material, thus giving rise to various types of capacitors with varying characteristics. But, the most basic type of capacitor used is a radial style with teo leads protruding from the same end.
Transformers are used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another with an increase or decrease in voltage. These components consist of a soft iron core with at least two coils of wire wound around it – primary and secondary. The primary is for the source circuit, and the secondary is for the circuit where the energy is being transferred to.
Inductors are used to store energy in the form of a magnetic field that generates when current flows through them. These components are simple coils of wires wound around a core, wherein the number of windings depicts the magnetic field and inductance of the inductors. Greater the number of windings, greater the magnetic field and inductance. Inductors are also used to filter out or block certain signals, as required by the system.
Transistors are amplifiers and electronic switches, which come in several types, with the bipolar transistor being the most common type. Other categories include the NPN and PNP versions. A bipolar transistor has 3 pins – the base, the collector, and the emitter. In NPN transistors, when current flows from the base to the emitter, it turns on another circuit that causes current to flow from the collector to the emitter. Conversely, in a PNP transistor, the directions are reversed.
Diodes are devices that allow current to flow in one direction only, from the anode to the cathode. This is done by having zero resistance in one direction and high resistance through the other direction. This functioning helps to block current from flowing in the wrong direction, thus eliminating potential errors and damages. One of the most popular diode is the light-emitting diode or LED.
Integrated Circuits are circuits and components that have been shrunk down onto wafers of a semiconductor material. These are the brains of a wide circuit, which is encased in a black plastic housing that comes in all shapes and sizes, having visible contacts, whether they are leads extending out from the body, or contact pads directly under BGA chips.
Switches and Relays
Switches are power buttons that control the current flow in the circuit by switching between an open or closed circuit. They are available in various types like push buttons, levers, key switches, toggles, sliders, rotaries, and many more. Relays are also similar electromagnetic switches operated via a solenoid, which acts like a temporary magnet when current flows through them, to amplify small currents to larger currents.
Sensors are used to detect changes in environmental conditions, and generate electrical signals corresponding to that change, which is sent to other electronic components in the circuit. These devices convert energy from a physical phenomenon into electrical energy. Sensors can detect almost all kinds of changes like light, air, touch, humidity, moisture, sound, and motion.
While these are the most basic components mounted on a PCB assembly, you can have additional elements also mounted on the board to have it to work more effectively. This depends upon your application and requirement. If you don’t know what to do, and what kind of PCB assembly you will need, you must get in touch with Miracle Electronics, who can understand all your requirements and design the most appropriate PCB assembly from Germany for you, offering the highest quality products and services.